Thursday, March 17, 2016

Falsehood and the Lotus Sūtra

Filed under "More stuff that is likely to get me in trouble".

So, if you haven't heard, I'm taking a course in East Asian Buddhism. Which, of course, entails reading the Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, a.k.a. the Lotus Sūtra.

And, as per usual, I've been giving my thoughts on things that I probably shouldn't and getting into some modest trouble for those thoughts.

There's not much I can do about that. I have serious and irreconcilable problems with this text from so many angles that it's hard to know where to start... beyond, I suppose, the idea that it considers the entire forty-five years of the Buddha's ministry to be lies.

Now, it specifically disagrees with me on this point - as Grace Grace pointed out, the text makes sure to deny the lies before anyone might suggest them.

Anyway, this article is an attempt to show, no matter what side of the fence you fall on, it is pretty hard to deny that the Lotus Sūtra does indeed claim that the Buddha intentionally lied for forty-five years.

Now, as a disclaimer, I don't read Chinese and don't have a Sanskrit version of the text handy, so I'm going by Hurvitz's translation, which I understand is accepted as authoritative. So, whether there is substantial meaning lost in translation I can't say. When referring to the Lotus Sūtra, I am referring to the 1970 English translation by Leon Hurvitz.

Anyway, the lying matter, which really is the heart of the LS, appears in the third chapter of the text. It is at the core of the new doctrine of the LS called "expedient means" (upāyakauśalya). On page 55, the text launches into a parable about a burning house full of children playing with their toys and a father standing outside trying to get the kids to come out. Here is a list of the comparisons made:

The father = the Buddha

The burning house = The three worlds

The fire = suffering and defilement

The toys = wealth and wordly pursuits

To convince the children to leave the burning house and their toys, he tells them "Things like these, a variety of goat-drawn carriages, deer-drawn carriages, and ox-drawn carriages, are now outside the door for you to play with." (p. 56) The new comparisons are:

Goat-drawn carriages = The vehicle of disciples (voice-hearers)

Deer-drawn carriages = The vehicle of private buddhas

Ox-drawn carriages = The vehicle of fully-self-enlightened buddhas

In other words, he tells them that there are three types of vehicles waiting for them outside. Scholars note (can't remember which, but I'll look it up again if desired, since I'm doing a paper on the text) that the parable is imperfect, given that the three vehicles are already outside of the realm of suffering, for which at least the first two types of vehicle are designed, but hey.

All this is fine but then, when they rush outside and demand a specific type of carriage, some of them wanting goat-drawn carriages, some wanting deer-drawn, some wanting ox-drawn, the father gives them all ox-drawn carriages - granted, more magnificent than any carriage they could have imagined, but still, all drawn by oxen.

The Buddha then asks Sariputra: "When this great man gives equally to all his children great carriages adorned with precious jewels, is he guilty of falsehood or not?" (p. 57)

Now, we can potentially excuse the man in the parable, because the language does seem somewhat finessed to say "things like these", in other words, perhaps he originally meant to say in a somewhat deceptive fashion that "things like deer- and goat-drawn carriages, i.e., ox-drawn carriages, are waiting for you..."

That is an argument we could have. Two problems, though. First, it doesn't hold in relation to the forty-five years of deception; I'm pretty sure everyone agrees that the Buddha used explicit language to describe the distinct identity of the three vehicles. So, when arahants and pacceka-buddhas (though the latter were never thought to come in contact with a fully-enlightened buddha) find out that the vehicles they "were promised" (or, more accurately, have ridden to their destination) do not exist, how can we say they have not been lied to? And so we come to the second problem, and that is Sariputra's supposed reply (or the important part for our purposes):

"Had this great man given them not one tiny carriage, he would still be no liar. Why? Because the great man first thought: 'By resort to an expedient device I will enable the children to get out.' For this reason he is guilty of no falsehood." (p. 57)

It points out that the father is better than this, giving them all carriages better than they could possibly dream of, but still, the above passage stands as the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra; the Buddha affirms Sariputra's speech in the following paragraph.

So, there really isn't any way of interpreting this that escapes the fact that the text presents the following argument:

A: If someone says something that is not true thinking of it as an expedient device for a greater good, they are guilty of no falsehood.

Now, if the argument were:

 B: If someone says something that is not true thinking of it as an expedient device for a greater good, they are guilty of no evil deed.

It would be at least recognizable as a Mahayana doctrine, with which I could disagree but respect as cogent. This is not the case, however. Parsing argument A, we have the form:

A': If someone performs action X thinking of it as Y, they have not performed action X.

This is an important abstraction, and perhaps open to the argument that if one doesn't think of lying as lying it is not lying. This would only hold if the father did not know he was lying, and the text makes it clear in multiple instances that the father knows he is saying something that is not true; there is no suggestion that he was unaware of the non-existence of the other carts. It doesn't matter whether you think of what you are doing as a lie; if you know that what you are saying is not true, you are telling a lie.

So, say what you will about the rightness or wrongness of telling a lie in a specific context, that is not what is most objectionable about the Lotus Sūtra. The two most objectionable aspects - though there are many others that could get me in more trouble if I were to talk about them here - are:

1. That the Lotus Sūtra claims that core doctrines of the Buddha's ministry over forty-five years are lies designed to bring ordinary beings to the point where they can understand his true teachings (supposedly in the Lotus Sūtra which is noticeably lacking in actual doctrine).

2. That the Lotus Sūtra claims that lying is not lying if it is done for the right reason, and therefore the Buddha did not in fact lie for forty-five years, because he lied for the right reason.

Now, I'm not trying to be argumentative, and if anyone has a refutation of the above analysis, I'm happy to hear it. Otherwise, I'm going to stick by the view that this text calls mainstream Buddhist doctrine lies and then denies doing that very thing.

Why is this important? Well, I suppose for most people it's not, really. For me, pointing out misrepresentations of the Buddha's teaching is important, and I think the Lotus Sūtra is a misrepresentation of the Buddha's teaching. I do not think it is proper to lie for any reason, and I don't think the Buddha ever taught that it was. More importantly, you can't pretend a lie isn't a lie just because you did it for the right reason. And of course, I don't think the Buddha lied for forty-five years just because we couldn't understand this disappointingly vague (and terribly self-absorbed) text.

Interesting may be how the doctrine of expedient means has been used in Buddhist circles that subscribe to this doctrine - in China and Japan it was used to synthesize the vast quantities of often contradictory Buddhist texts flowing in from India, and according to one scholar (Whalen Lai), the Lotus Sūtra might be seen as "important more for the template it provided that explained how the multifarious doctrines of Buddhism fit together than for the doctrinal teachings of the text itself."

Another scholar (Carl Bielefeldt) points out that some have likened the Lotus Sūtra to a “medium without a message—that is, a work that has no message apart from the celebration of its own importance.” As an inspirational text, I guess it could be argued that the Lotus Sūtra is... powerful, but that it does so at the expense of mainstream Buddhist doctrine like the three vehicles makes it entirely unpalatable to mainstream monks like me.

So. Hopefully I haven't ruffled too many feathers with what this toned-down critique of a text that I consider to be a misrepresentation of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. After all, it's only the Internet, right?

Saturday, December 19, 2015

Locke on Free Will

"Is it worth the name of freedom to be at liberty to play the fool, and draw shame and misery upon a man’s self? If to break loose from the conduct of reason, and to want that restraint of examination and judgment which keeps us from choosing or doing the worse, be liberty, true liberty, madmen and fools are the only freemen: but yet, I think, nobody would choose to be mad for the sake of such liberty, but he that is mad already. The constant desire of happiness, and the constraint it puts upon us to act for it, nobody, I think, accounts an abridgment of liberty, or at least an abridgment of liberty to be complained of."

-- John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding

It is our desire for happiness, Locke says, that determines the will. I agree with this, though it must be observed that, for the most part, we know not what truly leads to our own happiness. And so we suffer in our pursuit of it. Locke points to our ability to judge and alter our desires as the source of true freedom, which too seems agreeable to me - it is this judgement that occurs most efficaciously during mindfulness meditation practice, wherein one truly sees the objects of desire as they are and is able to correctly judge whether they conduce to happiness or suffering.

Last exam Monday, then off to Florida for Pagan-Christian Shiny Tree Day.

Monday, September 21, 2015

Taking Off

Lots of happenings to speak of...

The McMaster Buddhism Association is coming together; our first general meeting is next Wednesday. Other Wednesdays we're meeting on the grass to meditate.

The monastery inauguration went off without a hitch; small gathering, but good vibes all around. Pictures are on Google+ for those interested. Right now there are three of us staying here; me, a Sri Lankan, and an American.

Our meditation group has ascended to another level of usefulness.  There is now a schedule for one-on-one interviews here:

http://meditation.sirimangalo.org/appointment.php

This is for dedicated meditators to undertake part-time courses under weekly guidance. The neat thing is it uses video chat without any plugin or software; we already had two interviews today, and they went quite well.

Feeling busy, but in a good way. It's great to be able to cultivate goodness as a pastime.

Oh, and today is Ajaan Tong's 92nd birthday, so everyone wish him a long and peaceful life :)

Be well.

Wednesday, September 09, 2015

Settling In

Certainly not settled yet, but getting there.

Been crazy busy lately, moving into the new monastery, working with the McMaster Buddhism Association (MBA), and getting ready for becoming a schoolee again.

First, on the new monastery, it's... strange, really. It's a heavy burden taking on an entire building on one's own, but so far so good. Taking out the trash, sweeping, turning out lights, etc. Normal stuff. Problems still to solve: cutting grass, getting drinking water.

The MBA is up and running with its own website: http://www.macbuddhism.ca/ We have a good exec team, and at clubsfest today we collected 98 email addresses to add to a mailing list. Now we just need to organize some events.

School is somewhat surreal... not a heavy course load by any means, but it's going to take some adjusting to how things have changed - I need something called an i>clicker, and most course material and discussion is on the Internet. At least half of the students have notebooks in class, probably half of these are on Facebook during class (but it is early still). Times have changed. #feelingold

The 20th is still on for our inauguration; hopefully we can get some of the MBA members to come out and rejoice with us. Daily sessions are largely unchanged, though I might start with some online chanting at 6:30 PM, once things settle down for real. Or is it "if"?

Be well.

Wednesday, September 02, 2015

Urban Dharma Centre Inauguration

In honour of the birthday of Ajaan Tong Sirimangalo, we will be holding the official inauguration of Sirimangalo International's new urban monastery and meditation centre on Sunday, Sept. 20th (Ajaan Tong's birthday is on Monday the 21st).

There will be a blessing ceremony with local monastics in the morning followed by a pot luck lunch, and dharma talk and meditation in the afternoon. All are welcome, please RSVP if you can come, for a general head count. If you can't come, please send us your blessings :)


For those of you Facebookies out there, there's an event you can use to RSVP, otherwise leave a comment here.

https://www.facebook.com/events/902632533144596/

Sunday, August 30, 2015

Quotes on Death

Went to a funeral yesterday, and this morning the relatives came to see us; gave two talks on death, then this afternoon, our Visuddhimagga class was on mindfulness of death. Here are some of the quotes we read:

“Right from the very day one
Has been conceived inside a womb
They cannot but go on and on,
Nor going can they once turn back” (J-a IV 494).

“The nights and days go slipping by
As life keeps dwindling steadily
Till mortals’ span, like water pools
In failing rills, is all used up” (S I 109).

“The nights and days go slipping by
As life keeps dwindling steadily
Till mortals’ span, like water pools
In failing rills, is all used up” (S I 109).
“As there is fear, when fruits are ripe,
That in the morning they will fall,
So mortals are in constant fear,
When they are born, that they will die.
And as the fate of pots of clay
Once fashioned by the potter’s hand,
Or small or big or baked or raw,4
Condemns them to be broken up,
So mortals’ life leads but to death” (Sn p. 576f.).

“As though huge mountains made of rock
So vast they reached up to the sky
Were to advance from every side,
Grinding beneath them all that lives,
So age and death roll over all,
Warriors, priests, merchants, and craftsmen,
The outcastes and the scavengers,
Crushing all beings, sparing none.
And here no troops of elephants,
No charioteers, no infantry,
No strategy in form of spells,
No riches, serve to beat them off” (S I 102).

“Life, person, pleasure, pain—just these alone
Join in one conscious moment that flicks by.
Ceased aggregates of those dead or alive
Are all alike, gone never to return.
No [world is] born if [consciousness is] not
Produced; when that is present, then it lives;
When consciousness dissolves, the world is dead:
The highest sense this concept will allow”11 (Nidd I 42).

Monday, August 24, 2015

done deed

So... it's been quiet here. Mostly because of switching to daily YouTube videos that serve as a video log instead of this 20th century text stuff.

Still, text has its benefits.

The project to obtain a house to start a Buddhist monastery and meditation centre in West Hamilton, near McMaster University, has taken a turn for the quicker; we've signed a lease for September 1st, and will move in around Labour Day. Our new address will then be:

2 Bond St S, Hamilton, ON L8S 1S7

The idea is to begin to set up a more concrete and useful presence locally, to begin to form a stable organization to spread Buddhist meditation practice to Canada and the world.

We had a volunteer meeting on YouTube last night, facilitated by one of our more active volunteers, and there was good participation from the community. In order to make the monastery project work, such participation and support is going to be necessary, so here's hoping we can work together in productive harmony into the future.

There's a video of the house up on YouTube, in case anyone would like to see where we will be broadcasting from next month:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bjF3vZZjgY

That's about it for now. Thanks everyone for your support and participation in our projects.

Be well!